Publications

2016
Andrews, Matt, Lant Pritchett, and Michael Woolcock. 2016. “The Big Stuck in State Capability for Policy Implementation”.Abstract

We divide the 102 historically developing countries (HDCs) into those with ‘very weak’, ‘weak’, ‘middle’, and ‘strong’ state capability. Analyzing the levels and recent growth rates of the HDCs’ capability for policy implementation reveals how pervasively “stuck” most of them are.

Only eight HDCs have attained strong capability, and since most of these are small (e.g., Singapore, UAE), less than 100 million (or 1.7%) of the roughly 5.8 billion people in HDCs currently live in high capability states.

Almost half (49) of these countries have very weak or weak capability, and thus their long-run pace of acquiring capability is also very slow.

Alarmingly, three quarters of these countries (36 of 49) have experienced negative growth in state capability in recent decades, while more than a third of all countries (36 of 102) have low and (in the medium run at least) deteriorating state capability.

At current rates, the ‘time to high capability’ of the 49 currently weak capability states and the 36 with negative growth is obviously “forever”. But even for the 13 with positive growth, only three would reach strong capability by the end of the 21st century at their current medium run growth.

big_stuck_cidwp_318.pdf
Andrews, Matt, Lant Pritchett, and Michael Woolcock. 2016. “Scaling PDIA Solutions through Broad Agency, and Your Role”.Abstract

Many development challenges are complex, involving a lot of different agents and with unknown dimensions. Solutions to these challenges are often unknown, and contextually dependent. At the same time, there are political imperatives at play in many contexts which create pressure to ‘find the solution now…and then scale it up.’ Such pressure raises a question: how does a policy entrepreneur or reformer find a new solution and scale it up when dealing with complexity? This is the subject we address in the current paper, which is the fifth in a series on ‘how to’ do problem driven iterative adaptation (PDIA) (Andrews et al. 2015, 2016a, 2016b, 2016c).

The paper focuses on building broad agency solutions in the process of identifying problems and finding and fitting contextually appropriate solutions. The broad agency is, in our opinion, a most effective mechanism to ensure scaling and dynamic sustainability in the change process. As with other working papers on this topic, the contents here do not offer all answers to those asking questions about how to do development effectively. It closes by reflecting on the importance of ‘you’ (the reader, and ostensibly part of a policy change or reform team somewhere) using this and the other ideas as heuristics to rethink and reorient how you work—but with your own signature on each idea.

scaling_pdia_cidwp_315.pdf
Andrews, Matt, Lant Pritchett, and Michael Woolcock. 2016. “Scaling PDIA Solutions through Broad Agency, and Your Role”.Abstract

Many development challenges are complex, involving a lot of different agents and with unknown dimensions. Solutions to these challenges are often unknown, and contextually dependent. At the same time, there are political imperatives at play in many contexts which create pressure to ‘find the solution now…and then scale it up.’ Such pressure raises a question: how does a policy entrepreneur or reformer find a new solution and scale it up when dealing with complexity? This is the subject we address in the current paper, which is the fifth in a series on ‘how to’ do problem driven iterative adaptation (PDIA) (Andrews et al. 2015, 2016a, 2016b, 2016c).

The paper focuses on building broad agency solutions in the process of identifying problems and finding and fitting contextually appropriate solutions. The broad agency is, in our opinion, a most effective mechanism to ensure scaling and dynamic sustainability in the change process. As with other working papers on this topic, the contents here do not offer all answers to those asking questions about how to do development effectively. It closes by reflecting on the importance of ‘you’ (the reader, and ostensibly part of a policy change or reform team somewhere) using this and the other ideas as heuristics to rethink and reorient how you work—but with your own signature on each idea.

scaling_pdia_cidwp_315.pdf
Andrews, Matt, Lant Pritchett, and Michael Woolcock. 2016. “Scaling PDIA Solutions through Broad Agency, and Your Role”.Abstract

Many development challenges are complex, involving a lot of different agents and with unknown dimensions. Solutions to these challenges are often unknown, and contextually dependent. At the same time, there are political imperatives at play in many contexts which create pressure to ‘find the solution now…and then scale it up.’ Such pressure raises a question: how does a policy entrepreneur or reformer find a new solution and scale it up when dealing with complexity? This is the subject we address in the current paper, which is the fifth in a series on ‘how to’ do problem driven iterative adaptation (PDIA) (Andrews et al. 2015, 2016a, 2016b, 2016c).

The paper focuses on building broad agency solutions in the process of identifying problems and finding and fitting contextually appropriate solutions. The broad agency is, in our opinion, a most effective mechanism to ensure scaling and dynamic sustainability in the change process. As with other working papers on this topic, the contents here do not offer all answers to those asking questions about how to do development effectively. It closes by reflecting on the importance of ‘you’ (the reader, and ostensibly part of a policy change or reform team somewhere) using this and the other ideas as heuristics to rethink and reorient how you work—but with your own signature on each idea.

scaling_pdia_cidwp_315.pdf
Andrews, Matt, Lant Pritchett, and Michael Woolcock. 2016. “Doing Iterative and Adaptive Work”.Abstract

Many of the challenges in international development are complex in nature. They involve many actors in uncertain contexts and with unclear solutions. Our work has proposed an approach to addressing such challenges, called Problem Driven Iterative Adaptation (PDIA). This paper is the most recent in a series intended to show how one can do PDIA, building on the first paper, "Doing Problem Driven Work.” The current paper addresses a key part of the approach one moves to once a problem has been identified, performing real-time experimental iterations. This is intended as a practical paper that builds on experience and embeds exercises for readers who are actually involved in this kind of work.

adaptive_work_cd_wp_313.pdf
Andrews, Matt, Lant Pritchett, and Michael Woolcock. 2016. “Doing Iterative and Adaptive Work”.Abstract

Many of the challenges in international development are complex in nature. They involve many actors in uncertain contexts and with unclear solutions. Our work has proposed an approach to addressing such challenges, called Problem Driven Iterative Adaptation (PDIA). This paper is the most recent in a series intended to show how one can do PDIA, building on the first paper, "Doing Problem Driven Work.” The current paper addresses a key part of the approach one moves to once a problem has been identified, performing real-time experimental iterations. This is intended as a practical paper that builds on experience and embeds exercises for readers who are actually involved in this kind of work.

adaptive_work_cd_wp_313.pdf
Andrews, Matt, Lant Pritchett, and Michael Woolcock. 2016. “Doing Iterative and Adaptive Work”.Abstract

Many of the challenges in international development are complex in nature. They involve many actors in uncertain contexts and with unclear solutions. Our work has proposed an approach to addressing such challenges, called Problem Driven Iterative Adaptation (PDIA). This paper is the most recent in a series intended to show how one can do PDIA, building on the first paper, "Doing Problem Driven Work.” The current paper addresses a key part of the approach one moves to once a problem has been identified, performing real-time experimental iterations. This is intended as a practical paper that builds on experience and embeds exercises for readers who are actually involved in this kind of work.

adaptive_work_cd_wp_313.pdf
Andrews, Matt, Lant Pritchett, and Michael Woolcock. 2016. “Managing Your Authorizing Environment in a PDIA Process”.Abstract

Development and state building processes are about change. Change is, however, elusive in many contexts. In prior work, we have offered problem driven iterative adaptation (PDIA) as an approach to tackle wicked hard change challenges. This is our fourth practical working paper on ‘how’ to do PDIA. The working paper addresses questions about authority, given that authority is needed to make change happen—especially in hierarchical government settings. This authority is often difficult to attain, however. It is seldom located in one office of person, and is often harder to lock-in with complex challenges, given that they commonly involve significant risk and uncertainty and require engagement by many agents responding to different kinds of authority. Every effort must be taken to address such challenges, and efforts should include an explicit strategy to establish an appropriate authorizing environment. This working paper suggests ideas to adopt in this strategy, with practical exercises and examples to help the reader apply such ideas in her or his own work.

authorizing_environ_cid_wp_312.pdf
Andrews, Matt, Lant Pritchett, and Michael Woolcock. 2016. “Managing Your Authorizing Environment in a PDIA Process”.Abstract

Development and state building processes are about change. Change is, however, elusive in many contexts. In prior work, we have offered problem driven iterative adaptation (PDIA) as an approach to tackle wicked hard change challenges. This is our fourth practical working paper on ‘how’ to do PDIA. The working paper addresses questions about authority, given that authority is needed to make change happen—especially in hierarchical government settings. This authority is often difficult to attain, however. It is seldom located in one office of person, and is often harder to lock-in with complex challenges, given that they commonly involve significant risk and uncertainty and require engagement by many agents responding to different kinds of authority. Every effort must be taken to address such challenges, and efforts should include an explicit strategy to establish an appropriate authorizing environment. This working paper suggests ideas to adopt in this strategy, with practical exercises and examples to help the reader apply such ideas in her or his own work.

authorizing_environ_cid_wp_312.pdf
Andrews, Matt, Lant Pritchett, and Michael Woolcock. 2016. “Managing Your Authorizing Environment in a PDIA Process”.Abstract

Development and state building processes are about change. Change is, however, elusive in many contexts. In prior work, we have offered problem driven iterative adaptation (PDIA) as an approach to tackle wicked hard change challenges. This is our fourth practical working paper on ‘how’ to do PDIA. The working paper addresses questions about authority, given that authority is needed to make change happen—especially in hierarchical government settings. This authority is often difficult to attain, however. It is seldom located in one office of person, and is often harder to lock-in with complex challenges, given that they commonly involve significant risk and uncertainty and require engagement by many agents responding to different kinds of authority. Every effort must be taken to address such challenges, and efforts should include an explicit strategy to establish an appropriate authorizing environment. This working paper suggests ideas to adopt in this strategy, with practical exercises and examples to help the reader apply such ideas in her or his own work.

authorizing_environ_cid_wp_312.pdf
2015
Andrews, Matt, Lant Pritchett, and Michael Woolcock. 2015. “The Challenge of Building (Real) State Capability”.Abstract

Efforts to build state capability often take the form of commonly used, highly designed and engineered best practice solutions that have worked in many other places and that we suspect (and hope) will work again in many contexts. Such interventions do sometimes work, especially when the treatment actually addresses problems that fester in the context. Where the contextual problems are different, however, the treatment is just isomorphic mimicry—it looks good but will not be a solution to problems that actually matter. Development organizations often cannot see this, however, and offer the same solution again and again—hoping for a different outcome but imposing a capability trap on the policy context, where a new diagnosis and prescription is actually needed. In some countries the treatment has an even worse impact, fostering premature load bearing—where the context cannot actually handle what is prescribed. How can development experts identify in advance where they will have such negative impacts, and how can they identify in advance where they need to do development differently? This paper addresses such questions, and introduces an approach to building state capability in the latter contexts (called 1804 contexts), called problem driven iterative adaptation.

building_real_capability_wp_306.pdf
Andrews, Matt, Lant Pritchett, and Michael Woolcock. 2015. “The Challenge of Building (Real) State Capability”.Abstract

Efforts to build state capability often take the form of commonly used, highly designed and engineered best practice solutions that have worked in many other places and that we suspect (and hope) will work again in many contexts. Such interventions do sometimes work, especially when the treatment actually addresses problems that fester in the context. Where the contextual problems are different, however, the treatment is just isomorphic mimicry—it looks good but will not be a solution to problems that actually matter. Development organizations often cannot see this, however, and offer the same solution again and again—hoping for a different outcome but imposing a capability trap on the policy context, where a new diagnosis and prescription is actually needed. In some countries the treatment has an even worse impact, fostering premature load bearing—where the context cannot actually handle what is prescribed. How can development experts identify in advance where they will have such negative impacts, and how can they identify in advance where they need to do development differently? This paper addresses such questions, and introduces an approach to building state capability in the latter contexts (called 1804 contexts), called problem driven iterative adaptation.

building_real_capability_wp_306.pdf
Andrews, Matt, Lant Pritchett, and Michael Woolcock. 2015. “The Challenge of Building (Real) State Capability”.Abstract

Efforts to build state capability often take the form of commonly used, highly designed and engineered best practice solutions that have worked in many other places and that we suspect (and hope) will work again in many contexts. Such interventions do sometimes work, especially when the treatment actually addresses problems that fester in the context. Where the contextual problems are different, however, the treatment is just isomorphic mimicry—it looks good but will not be a solution to problems that actually matter. Development organizations often cannot see this, however, and offer the same solution again and again—hoping for a different outcome but imposing a capability trap on the policy context, where a new diagnosis and prescription is actually needed. In some countries the treatment has an even worse impact, fostering premature load bearing—where the context cannot actually handle what is prescribed. How can development experts identify in advance where they will have such negative impacts, and how can they identify in advance where they need to do development differently? This paper addresses such questions, and introduces an approach to building state capability in the latter contexts (called 1804 contexts), called problem driven iterative adaptation.

building_real_capability_wp_306.pdf
Andrews, Matt, Lant Pritchett, and Michael Woolcock. 2015. “Doing Problem Driven Work”.Abstract

We often observe that more successful efforts to establish complex state capabilities are problem driven; focused relentlessly on solving a specific, attention-grabbing problem. This is the first principle of Problem Driven Iterative Adaptation, which we are introducing in pieces in a series of working papers over the coming months. The current working paper starts with a discussion about why problems matter as entry points to complex state capability building challenges. It then offers practical ideas and tools to help those trying to use problems to foster change (given the need to construct problems, deconstruct problems and then promote problem driven sequencing). The working paper should help readers who wonder why we emphasize problems as entry points and positive motivators of change (we don’t agree that problems demotivate or disempower) and how we work practically to define and tackle problems.

doing_problem_driven_work_wp_307.pdf
Andrews, Matt, Lant Pritchett, and Michael Woolcock. 2015. “Doing Problem Driven Work”.Abstract

We often observe that more successful efforts to establish complex state capabilities are problem driven; focused relentlessly on solving a specific, attention-grabbing problem. This is the first principle of Problem Driven Iterative Adaptation, which we are introducing in pieces in a series of working papers over the coming months. The current working paper starts with a discussion about why problems matter as entry points to complex state capability building challenges. It then offers practical ideas and tools to help those trying to use problems to foster change (given the need to construct problems, deconstruct problems and then promote problem driven sequencing). The working paper should help readers who wonder why we emphasize problems as entry points and positive motivators of change (we don’t agree that problems demotivate or disempower) and how we work practically to define and tackle problems.

doing_problem_driven_work_wp_307.pdf
Andrews, Matt, Lant Pritchett, and Michael Woolcock. 2015. “Doing Problem Driven Work”.Abstract

We often observe that more successful efforts to establish complex state capabilities are problem driven; focused relentlessly on solving a specific, attention-grabbing problem. This is the first principle of Problem Driven Iterative Adaptation, which we are introducing in pieces in a series of working papers over the coming months. The current working paper starts with a discussion about why problems matter as entry points to complex state capability building challenges. It then offers practical ideas and tools to help those trying to use problems to foster change (given the need to construct problems, deconstruct problems and then promote problem driven sequencing). The working paper should help readers who wonder why we emphasize problems as entry points and positive motivators of change (we don’t agree that problems demotivate or disempower) and how we work practically to define and tackle problems.

doing_problem_driven_work_wp_307.pdf
Building capability by delivering results: Putting Problem-Driven Iterative Adaptation (PDIA) principles into practice
Andrews, Matt, Lant Pritchett, Salimah Samji, and Michael Woolcock. 2015. “Building capability by delivering results: Putting Problem-Driven Iterative Adaptation (PDIA) principles into practice.” A Governance Practitioner’s Notebook: Alternative Ideas and Approaches, 123-133. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 123-133. Publisher's Version governance_notebook_pdia.pdf french_version_governance_notebook_pdia.pdf
Building capability by delivering results: Putting Problem-Driven Iterative Adaptation (PDIA) principles into practice
Andrews, Matt, Lant Pritchett, Salimah Samji, and Michael Woolcock. 2015. “Building capability by delivering results: Putting Problem-Driven Iterative Adaptation (PDIA) principles into practice.” A Governance Practitioner’s Notebook: Alternative Ideas and Approaches, 123-133. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 123-133. Publisher's Version governance_notebook_pdia.pdf french_version_governance_notebook_pdia.pdf
Building capability by delivering results: Putting Problem-Driven Iterative Adaptation (PDIA) principles into practice
Andrews, Matt, Lant Pritchett, Salimah Samji, and Michael Woolcock. 2015. “Building capability by delivering results: Putting Problem-Driven Iterative Adaptation (PDIA) principles into practice.” A Governance Practitioner’s Notebook: Alternative Ideas and Approaches, 123-133. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 123-133. Publisher's Version governance_notebook_pdia.pdf french_version_governance_notebook_pdia.pdf
Building capability by delivering results: Putting Problem-Driven Iterative Adaptation (PDIA) principles into practice
Andrews, Matt, Lant Pritchett, Salimah Samji, and Michael Woolcock. 2015. “Building capability by delivering results: Putting Problem-Driven Iterative Adaptation (PDIA) principles into practice.” A Governance Practitioner’s Notebook: Alternative Ideas and Approaches, 123-133. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 123-133. Publisher's Version governance_notebook_pdia.pdf french_version_governance_notebook_pdia.pdf

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